US

Testing infrastructure and procedure description

In the U.S there is not a harmonized regulatory framework for testing in public road through all the States. There are some States through the governor have issued executive orders related to autonomous vehicles:

  • Alabama:
    • SJR 81. Alabama has passed legislation to establish a committee to study self-driving vehicles.
  • Alaska:
    • No legislation related to AD.
  • Arkansas:
    • Act 797 to regulate the testing of vehicles with autonomous technology; and for other purposes. It also regulates vehicles with drive-assistive truck platooning systems.
  • California:
    • Bill 1298. Bill 1298, passed in 2012, established the first procedures for testing self-driving cars in the state. Other laws lay out the rights of law enforcement to seize improperly licensed self-driving cars, the ability of local municipalities to charge specific taxes on driverless taxi services, and other factors relating to self-driving cars.
  • Colorado:
    • SB 213. Colorado has legislation that sets out legal definitions for automated driving systems and explicitly allows people to use self-driving cars, provided that such vehicles comply with both state and federal laws.
  • Connecticut:
    • SB 260. Connecticut has legislation that defines various terms relating to self-driving cars and establishes procedures for testing self-driving cars in the state. Fully driverless cars are prohibited, as the legislation specifies that an operator must be present in the driver’s seat of a self-driving vehicle at all times.
  • Delaware:
    • Delaware has no self-driving car legislation, but the governor did sign an executive order in 2017 to establish an advisory council on self-driving cars. There are no specific laws on the books to prohibit self-driving cars.
    • Executive Order 14. Establishing the Advisory Council on Connected and Autonomous Vehicles.
  • Florida:
    • Florida passed legislation in 2012 to encourage the safe testing of self-driving car technology in the state. The legislation also explicitly stated that Florida does not prohibit the testing or operation of self-driving cars. Later legislation passed in 2016 expanded on this general theme and even paved the way for the testing of fully-automated vehicles with no human operator.
    • HB 1207
    • HB 7027
  • Georgia:
    • Georgia has legislation that defines automated driving systems and exempts the operators of self-driving cars from the requirement to have a valid driver’s license. The legislation also sets forth the requirements for a self-driving vehicle to operate in the state without a human operator present in the vehicle.
    • SB 219
  • Hawaii:
    • Hawaii has no self-driving car legislation, but the governor did enact an executive order pertaining to self-driving cars. The order instructs government agencies in the state to work with interested companies to facilitate the testing of self-driving vehicles in Hawaii.
    • Executive Order 17-07
  • Idaho:
    • Idaho has no self-driving car legislation, but the governor signed an executive order in 2018 to support the development of regulations pertaining to the safe testing of self-driving vehicles in the state. There are no laws that specifically prohibit self-driving cars.
    • Executive Order 2018-1
  • Illinois:
    • Illinois doesn’t have any self-driving car laws on the books, but the governor signed an executive order in 2018 that established an initiative to promote the development and testing of self-driving cars in the state. There are no specific laws on the books to prohibit self-driving vehicles.
    • Executive Order 2018-13
  • Indiana:
    • Indiana doesn’t have any self-driving car laws on the books that pertain to personal vehicles. The only self-driving vehicle law on the books addresses the electronically-coordinated platooning of autonomous vehicles.
    • HB 1290
  • Iowa:
    • Iowa doesn’t have any self-driving vehicle laws at all, and no executive orders have been signed to address self-driving vehicles. There are no specific laws that prohibit self-driving vehicles.
  • Kansas:
    • There are no self-driving vehicle laws on the books in Kansas, and there have been no executive orders. There are no laws pertaining to self-driving vehicles at all, so they are no specifically prohibited.
  • Kentucky:
    • Kentucky has a law that sets out regulations for autonomous platoons of commercial vehicles, but there are no laws on the books pertaining to non-commercial self-driving cars. Self-driving cars are therefore not specifically prohibited by law.
    • SB 116
  • Louisiana:
    • Louisiana has a law that defines autonomous technology in relation to self-driving vehicles, and a law that sets down regulations for platoons of autonomous commercial vehicles. There are no laws that specifically govern or prohibit prohibit self-driving cars.
    • HB 1143
    • HB 308
  • Maine:
    • The governor of Maine signed an executive order to create an advisory committee to facilitate the testing and operation of self-driving vehicles in the state. Additionally, legislation was passed to codify the responsibilities of that committee and to create a roadmap for the development of self-driving technology in Maine.
    • Executive Order 2018-001
    • HP 1204
  • Maryland:
    • There are no self-driving vehicle laws in Maryland, and there have been no executive orders pertaining to self-driving vehicles. There are no laws on the books that specifically forbid self-driving vehicles either.
  • Massachusetts:
    • There are no self-driving vehicle laws in Maryland, but the governor did issue an executive order in 2016 to facilitate the safe testing and operation of self-driving cars in the state. There are no laws that specifically prohibit self-driving vehicles.
    • Executive Order 572
  • Michigan:
    • Michigan has several laws pertaining to self-driving vehicles:
    • SB 995. Officially allows for the use of autonomous vehicles in certain conditions.
    • SB 996. Creates provisions for the operation of autonomous vehicles without the presence of a human operator.
  • Mississippi:
    • HB 1343. Related to platoons of autonomous commercial vehicles.
  • Missouri:
    • No legislation related to AD.
  • Montana:
    • No legislation related to AD.
  • Nebraska:
    • LB 989. It sets out requirements that self-driving cars must meet to operate in the state.
  • Nevada:
    • AB 511. Providing certain privileges to the owner or long-term lessee of a qualified alternative fuel vehicle; authorizing in this State the operation of, and a driver’s license endorsement for operators of, autonomous vehicles; providing a penalty; and providing other matters properly relating thereto.
    • SB 140. Prohibiting a person from using a cellular telephone or other handheld wireless communications device while operating a motor vehicle in certain circumstances; providing penalties; and providing other matters properly relating thereto.
      https://www.leg.state.nv.us/Session/76th2011/Bills/SB/SB140_EN.pdf
  • New Hampshire:
    • No legislation related to AD.
  • New Jersey:
    • No legislation related to AD.
  • New Mexico:
    • No legislation related to AD.
  • New York:
    • New York has legislation that sets out testing requirements and procedures for self-driving vehicles in the state. Additional legislation has also created additional tests procedures and instructions for first responders on how to deal with autonomous vehicles.
    • SB 2005
    • AB 9508
  • North Carolina:
    • North Carolina has legislation that establishes regulations for self-driving vehicles. The legislation specifies that fully autonomous vehicles can be operated without a driver’s license. Additionally, no child aged 12 years or younger may ride in an autonomous vehicle without an adult present.
    • HB 469
  • North Dakota:
    • North Dakota has self-driving vehicle legislation that requires the state department of transportation to study autonomous vehicles. There are no laws that prohibit the use of self-driving vehicles.
    • HB 1065
    • HB 1202
  • Ohio:
    • There are no laws on the books in Ohio that pertain to self-driving vehicles. Two relevant executive orders have been signed by the governor. The first created an organization to help self-driving car technology companies interface with the government of the state, and the second created regulations for testing self-driving vehicles in the state.
    • Executive Order 2018-01K
  • Oklahoma:
    • There are no self-driving car laws on the books in Oklahoma, and there have been no relevant executive orders. Self-driving vehicles are not specifically prohibited by law.
  • Oregon:
    • Oregon has legislation that establishes an autonomous vehicle task force that’s responsible for creating relevant policies. Recommendations from the task force are expected to be codified into law in 2019.
    • HB 4063
  • Pennsylvania:
    • There are no laws in Pennsylvania that pertain to non-commercial self-driving cars. There have been two laws passed that pertain to autonomous vehicles, including one to allocate funds for autonomous vehicle technology, and one that sets down definitions for platoons of autonomous commercial vehicles. There are no laws that specifically prohibit self-driving cars.
    • SB 1267
    • HB 1958
  • Rhode Island:
    • No legislation related to AD.
  • South Carolina:
    • No legislation related to AD.
  • South Dakota:
    • No legislation related to AD.
  • Tennessee:
    • Tennessee has several laws that pertain to self-driving cars, including one that prevents local governments from banning autonomous vehicles. Other laws define various autonomous vehicle terms and specifically allow the use of autonomous vehicles if specific conditions are met.
    • SB 598
    • SB 2333
    • SB 1561
    • SB 151
  • Texas:
    • Texas has legislation that defines a variety of autonomous vehicle terms and explicitly states that self-driving vehicles are legal in the state. The legislation also prevents local governments from outlawing self-driving vehicles and provides for the operation of fully autonomous vehicles, with no human operator at all, under specific circumstances.
    • SB 2205
  • Utah:
    • Utah has passed laws to authorize and require studies of autonomous vehicle technologies in the state. There are no laws that specifically permit or prohibit the use of self-driving cars.
    • HB 373
    • HB 280
  • Vermont:
    • Vermont has passed legislation to require the state department of transportation to convene meetings regarding autonomous vehicles and report to the House and Senate committees to provide recommendations. Self-driving cars are not specifically permitted or prohibited.
    • HB 494
  • Virginia:
    • The only law on the books in Virginia that pertains to self-driving vehicles is designed to allow operators of such vehicles to view visual displays while their vehicle is under autonomous operation. This is contrasted with regular vehicles, which can only have visual displays if they shut down when the vehicle is in motion.
    • HB 454
  • Washington:
    • In 2017, the governor of Washington issued an executive order to address autonomous vehicle testing in the state. There is also a law on the books that directs the state transportation commission to develop policies to govern self-driving vehicles. There are no laws on the books that prohibit self-driving vehicles.
    • Executive Order 17-02
    • HB 2970
  • Washington, D.C.:
  • Legislation passed by the Washington, D.C. council defines autonomous vehicles and requires any self-driving vehicle operated in the district to have a human operator ready to take control. Conversion of conventional vehicles into self-driving cars is also limited to newer vehicles.
  • West Virginia:
    • No legislation related to AD.
  • Wisconsin:
    • There are no self-driving car laws in Wisconsin, but the governor did sign an executive order to create a steering committee to provide advice on future regulations.
    • Executive Order 245
  • Wyoming:
    • There are no self-driving car laws in Wyoming, and there have been no relevant executive orders. Self-driving vehicles are not specifically prohibited by law.

Organisation(s) in Charge

  • S. Department of Transportation
  • NHTSA: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
  • Each respective Federal State

Link to Procedure Website

Link to Documents

Further Comments

N/A

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