Next to the identification of existing standards related with CAD we need to identify ongoing standardisation activities for which voluntary collaborative groups provide support further standardisation initiatives. In general activities which bring together automotive technologists, policy makers and other stakeholders.
|EOS/ESD Association, Inc.||ANSI accredited organization. Write and produce standards on electrostatics.||https://www.esda.org/standards/|
|OpenDRIVE||Open file format for the logical description of road networks.||http://www.opendrive.org/|
|OpenCRG||Complementary to OpenDRIVE||http://www.opencrg.org/|
|OpenSCENARIO||Open file format for the description of dynamic contents in driving simulation applications||http://www.openscenario.org/|
|FMI||Functional Mock-up Interface||https://fmi-standard.org/|
|PSIS||Putting science into standards||https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/sites/jrcsh/files/20160922-23-science-standards-decarbonisation-programme_en.pdf|
There is also a wider concept of standardisation, such as various classes of standard types administered by a range of different organisations from formal government-backed groups, professional bodies, and principally supplier led organisations.
In June 2018, the Volkswagen Group announced that it teamed up with a group of suppliers to form the Networking for Autonomous Vehicles (NAV) alliance to standardize systems that drive automated vehicles. The group besides VW Group includes Bosch, Continental, NVIDIA and Aquantia. Their main objective is to develop an ecosystem that is required for next generation Multi-Gig automotive ethernet network in the vehicle.
In October 2018, the Ford Motor Company put out a call for OEMs to come together to develop a standardised language for automated vehicles to communicate intent. Ford’s point of view is that the surrounding world should not have to change their behaviour to accommodate automated vehicles. That will happen only if the industry can agree on a standard for communication.
In March 2019, leading automotive manufactures such as BMW and Daimler have joined forces to define rules for standardising the AD technology. The collaboration is designed to set standards to shape future regulation for automated vehicles. The alliance will include suppliers from advanced driver assistance systems and autonomous driving technology.
Further activities that go beyond standardisation also include industry cooperation such as AUTOSAR, which is planning to include mechanisms for AD and establish a standardized automotive software architecture. Mechanisms that may be expected in future releases will address enabling technologies such as online updates of vehicle software and specific technological aspects such as support for system redundancy in their standard architectures.
The Car2Car consortium focuses on wireless vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication applications based on ITS-G5 and concentrates all efforts on creating standards ensuring the interoperability of cooperative systems spanning all vehicle classes, across borders and brands.
The GENIVI alliance develops standards approaches for integrating operating systems and middleware present in the centralized and connected vehicle cockpit. The alliance has built a strong community including organisations such as BMW group, Daimler, PSA, Renault, Honda, Nissan, Aptiv, Bosch and Visteon.
|ARTEMIS||Industry association for actors in Embedded Intelligent Systems within Europe||https://artemis-ia.eu|
|AUTOSAR||Automotive open system architecture||https://www.autosar.org/|
|Car 2 Car||Communication consortium||https://www.car-2-car.org/|
|GENIVI||Automotive industry alliance||https://www.genivi.org|
|Open AutoDrive Forum||Driving standardisation in the area of AD||http://www.openautodrive.org/|
|NAV||Networking for autonomous vehicles||https://nav-alliance.org/|
|Amsterdam Group||Facilitate joint deployment of C-ITS in Europe||https://amsterdamgroup.mett.nl|
EC research projects
The EC requires all vehicles to communicate with each other and with the infrastructure, therefore communications systems will have to be interoperable. For this reason the EC has supported several projects in order to influence the formation of new standardisation working groups to facilitate technological impacts that arise. It is important to share information and knowledge on technologies, standards, laws and infrastructure of automated vehicles, and discuss the necessity of European and international standardisation of technologies. Standards themselves can serve as framework conditions for the next generation of research. This was especially the case for the projects in the table below. Still, a more coherent funding strategy is recommended to ensure that funding is allocated to priority areas and projects, which can support the EU’s position in the global automated driving market.
|ACOSAR||Advanced Co-Simulation Open System Architecture||09/2015 – 08/2018||http://www.acosar.eu/|
|AutoMat||Automotive Big Data Marketplace for Innovative Cross-sectorial Vehicle Data Services||04/2015 – 03/2018||https://www.automat-project.eu|
|AutoNet2030||Co-operative Systems in Support of Networked Automated Driving by 2030||11/2013 – 10/2016||http://www.autonet2030.eu|
|ENABLE-S3||European Initiative to Enable Validation for Highly Automated Safe and Secure Systems||05/2016 – 05/2019||https://www.enable-s3.eu|
|PROSPECT||Proactive Safety for Pedestrians and Cyclists||05/2015 – 10/2018||http://www.prospect-project.eu|