Standards Collection

The ARCADE standardisation team aims in compiling a list of CAD related standards. The first logical step in this process is to bring global automated vehicle standards from different bodies involved worldwide into a fully harmonised group. This harmonisation effort will also assist in following and revising the status of the published or draft standards. The lists below will be updated on a quarterly basis and will include published and under development standards respectively.

Released Standards

Standard Number Standard Title Published Date Domain
ISO 21717:2018 Intelligent transport systems — Partially Automated In-Lane Driving Systems (PADS) — Performance requirements and test procedures September 2018 AD/ADAS functions
ISO 16787:2017 Intelligent transport systems — Assisted Parking System (APS) — Performance requirements and test procedure December 2017 AD/ADAS functions
ISO 20035 ITS – Cooperative adaptive cruise control systems January 2019 AD/ADAS functions
ISO 19638 ITS – Road boundary departure prevention systems September 2018 AD/ADAS functions
SAE J3045 Truck & bus lane departure warning systems test procedure September 2018 AD/ADAS functions
ETSI TS 101 539 Intersection collision risk warning June 2018 AD/ADAS functions
PAS 1880:2020 Guidelines for developing and assessing control systems for automated vehicles February 2020 AD/ADAS functions
J3171_201911 Identifying Automated Driving Systems-Dedicated Vehicles (ADS-DVs) Passenger Issues for Persons with Disabilities November 2019 AD/ADAS functions
P2846 P2846 – Assumptions for Models in Safety-Related Automated Vehicle Behavior September 2020 AD/ADAS functions
P2040.2  Recommended Practice for Multi-Input Based Decision Making of Automated Vehicles Driving on Public Roads February 2020 AD/ADAS functions
ISO 19237:2017 Intelligent transport systems — Pedestrian detection and collision mitigation systems (PDCMS) — Performance requirements and test December 2017 AD/ADAS functions
ISO 22078:2020 Intelligent transport systems — Bicyclist detection and collision mitigation systems (BDCMS) — Performance requirements and test procedures February 2020 AD/ADAS functions
ISO 15622:2018 Intelligent transport systems — Adaptive cruise control systems — Performance requirements and test procedures September 2018 AD/ADAS functions
ISO 20900:2019 Intelligent transport systems — Partially automated parking systems (PAPS) — Performance requirements and test procedures May 2019 AD/ADAS functions
ISO 11067:2015 Intelligent transport systems — Curve speed warning systems (CSWS) — Performance requirements and test procedures July 2015 AD/ADAS functions
ISO 11270:2014 Intelligent transport systems — Lane keeping assistance systems (LKAS) — Performance requirements and test procedures May 2014 AD/ADAS functions
ISO 15623:2013 Intelligent transport systems — Forward vehicle collision warning systems — Performance requirements and test procedures July 2013 AD/ADAS functions
ISO 17361:2017 Intelligent transport systems — Lane departure warning systems — Performance requirements and test procedures June 2017 AD/ADAS functions
ISO 17386:2010 Transport information and control systems — Manoeuvring Aids for Low Speed Operation (MALSO) — Performance requirements and test procedures March 2010 AD/ADAS functions
ISO 17387:2008 Intelligent transport systems — Lane change decision aid systems (LCDAS) — Performance requirements and test procedures May 2008 AD/ADAS functions
ISO 22839:2013 Intelligent transport systems — Forward vehicle collision mitigation systems — Operation, performance, and verification requirements June 2013 AD/ADAS functions
ISO 22840:2010 Intelligent transport systems — Devices to aid reverse manoeuvres — Extended-range backing aid systems (ERBA) April 2010 AD/ADAS functions
ISO 26684:2015 Intelligent transport systems (ITS) — Cooperative intersection signal information and violation warning systems (CIWS) — Performance requirements and test procedures May 2015 AD/ADAS functions
CEN ISO/TS 19468 Intelligent transport systems – Data interfaces between centers for transport information and control system October 2019 Connectivity
IEEE 1609.12 IEEE standard for wireless access in vehicular environments (WAVE) – Identifiers September 2019 Connectivity
CEN ISO/TS 19091 Intelligent transport systems – Cooperative ITS – Using V2I and I2V communications for application related to signalized intersections July 2019 Connectivity
IEEE 1609.2b IEEE standard for wireless access to vehicular environment July 2019 Connectivity
CEN/TR 17297-1 Intelligent transport systems – Location referencing harmonization for urban ITS – Part 1: State of the art and guidelines May 2019 Connectivity
ISO 20078-3 Road vehicles – Extended vehicle (ExVe) web services – Part 3: Security May 2019 Connectivity
ISO 20080 Road vehicles – Information for remote diagnostic support March 2019 Connectivity
ISO 20078-2 Road vehicles – Extended vehicle (ExVe) web services – Part 2: Access February 2019 Connectivity
ISO 20078-1 Road vehicles – Extended vehicle (ExVe) web services – Part 1: Content February 2019 Connectivity
SAE J2945/2 DSRC performance requirements for V2V safety awareness October 2018 Connectivity
ETSI TS 138 522 5G; NR; User equipment conformance specification October 2018 Connectivity
ETSI TS 102 965 Intelligent transport systems; application object identifier July 2018 Connectivity
ETSI TR 121 914 Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; 5G; Release description; Release 14 June 2018 Connectivity
ETSI TS 124 386 LTE; User equipment to V2X control function June 2018 Connectivity
ISO 20077-1: 2017 Road Vehicles — Extended vehicle (ExVe) methodology — Part 1: General information December 2017 Connectivity
SAE J2945 Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) Systems Engineering Process Guidance for SAE J2945/X Documents and Common Design Concepts December 2017 Connectivity
ISO 20077-2 Road Vehicles — Extended vehicle (ExVe) methodology — Part 2: Methodology for designing the extended vehicle December 2017 Connectivity
ETSI TS 122 185 LTE; Service requirements for V2X services March 2017 Connectivity
ETSI EN 302 571 v2.1.1 Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Radio communications equipment operating in the 5 855 MHz to 5 925 MHz frequency band February 2017 Connectivity
ISO/DIS 13185 1-3 Intelligent transport systems — Vehicle interface for provisioning and support of ITS Services (Part 1-4) 2012-2020 Connectivity
J3067_202010 Candidate Improvements to Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Message Set Dictionary [SAE J2735] Using Systems Engineering Methods(STABILIZED Oct 2020) October 2020 Connectivity
J2735ASN_202007 V2X Communications Message Set Dictionary™ ASN file March 2016 Connectivity
J2735SET_202007 V2X Communications Message Set Dictionary™ Set March 2016 Connectivity
J2735_202007 V2X Communications Message Set Dictionary™  December 2006 Connectivity
J2945/1A_202007 Vehicle Level Validation Test Procedures for V2V Safety Communications  July 2020 Connectivity
J2945/2A_201907 Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Performance Requirements for V2V Safety Awareness™ ASN File July 2019 Connectivity
ETSI GR IP6 030 IPv6-based Vehicular Networking (V2X) October 2020 Connectivity
ETSI TR 103 496  Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS);
Cooperative ITS (C-ITS) support for transport pollution
management applications;
Use cases and standardization study
October 2020 Connectivity
 ETSI EN 302 890-2 Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS);
Facilities Layer function;
Part 2: Position and Time management (PoTi);
Release 2 
August 2020 Connectivity
ETSI TS 122 185 LTE;
Service requirements for V2X services
August 2020 Connectivity
ISO-20078-1: 2019 Road vehicles — Extended vehicle (ExVe) web services — Part 1: Content February 2019 Connectivity
ISO-20078-2: 2019 Road vehicles — Extended vehicle (ExVe) web services — Part 2: Access February 2019 Connectivity
ISO-20078-3: 2019 Road vehicles — Extended vehicle (ExVe) web services —Part 3: Security May 2019 Connectivity
ISO-20078-4: 2019 Road vehicles — Extended vehicle (ExVe) web services — Part 4: Control April 2019 Connectivity
ISO 23132:2020 Road vehicles — Extended Vehicle (ExVe) time critical applications — General requirements, definitions and classification methodology of time-constrained situations related to Road and ExVe Safety (RExVeS) July 2020 Connectivity
ETSI TR 138 900 Study on channel model for frequency spectrum above 6 GHz July 2018 Connectivity
ETSI TR 138 185 Security aspect for LTE support of Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X)
services 
August 2020 Connectivity
ETSI TR 121 914 Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM);
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; 5G; 
October 2018 Connectivity
ETSI EN 302 895 Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; Basic Set of Applications; Local Dynamic Map (LDM) September 2014 Connectivity
ETSI EN 302 686 Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Radiocommunications equipment operating in the 63 GHz to 64 GHz frequency band; Harmonized EN covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of the R&TTE Directive February 2011 Connectivity
 ETSI EN 302 663  Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS);
ITS-G5 Access layer specification for Intelligent Transport
Systems operating in the 5 GHz frequency band 
May 2019 Connectivity
EN 302 571 Radiocommunications equipment operating in the 5 855 MHz to 5 925 MHz frequency band; February 2017 Connectivity
ETSI EN 302 637-2 V1.4.1 Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; Basic Set of Applications; Part 2: Specification of Cooperative Awareness Basic Service January 2019 Connectivity
ETSI EN 302 637-3 V1.3.1  Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; Basic Set of Applications; Part 3: Specifications of Decentralized Environmental Notification Basic Service April 2019 Connectivity
ETSI TS 102 894-2 V1.3.1 Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Users and applications requirements; Part 2: Applications and facilities layer common data dictionary August 2018 Connectivity
ETSI EN 302 665  V1.1.1 Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Communications Architecture September 2010 Connectivity
ETSI TS 102 792 V1.2.1 Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Mitigation techniques to avoid interference between European CEN Dedicated Short Range Communication (CEN DSRC) equipment and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) operating in the 5 GHz frequency range June 2015 Connectivity
ETSI TS 103 301 V1.3.1 Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications;
Basic Set of Applications; Facilities layer protocols and communication requirements for infrastructure services 
February 2020 Connectivity
ISO/TS 19321:2020 Intelligent transport systems — Cooperative ITS — Dictionary of in-vehicle information (IVI) data structures September 2020 Connectivity
ETSI EN 302 636-5-1 V2.2.1 Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; GeoNetworking; Part 5: Transport Protocols; Sub-part 1: Basic Transport Protocol May 2019 Connectivity
ETSI EN 302 636-4-1 V1.4.1 Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; GeoNetworking; Part 4: Geographical addressing and forwarding for point-to-point and point-to-multipoint communications; Sub-part 1: Media-Independent Functionality November 2019 Connectivity
IEEE 1609.4 IEEE Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) — Multi-Channel Operation January 2016 Connectivity
IEEE 1609.3 IEEE Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) — Networking Services January 2016 Connectivity
ETSI EN 303 613 Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS);
LTE-V2X Access layer specification for Intelligent Transport
Systems operating in the 5 GHz frequency band 
January 2020 Connectivity
ISO 17515-3:2019 Intelligent transport systems — Evolved-universal terrestrial radio access network — Part 3: LTE-V2X August 2019 Connectivity

ISO 17427-1:2018
Intelligent transport systems — Cooperative ITS — Part 1: Roles and responsibilities in the context of co-operative ITS architecture(s) June 2018 Connectivity
ISO 17419:2018 Intelligent transport systems — Cooperative systems — Globally unique identification May 2018 Connectivity
ISO 17423:2018 Intelligent transport systems — Cooperative systems — Application requirements and objectives May 2018 Connectivity
ISO 24102 1-6 Intelligent transport systems — ITS station management July 1905 Connectivity
ISO/TS 17429:2017 Intelligent transport systems — Cooperative ITS — ITS station facilities for the transfer of information between ITS stations March 2017 Connectivity
ISO 14813 (part 1-6) Intelligent transport systems — Reference model architecture(s) for the ITS sector  2015-2020 Connectivity
ISO/TR 21959-1:2020 Road vehicles — Human performance and state in the context of automated driving — Part 1: Common underlying concepts January 2020 Human Interaction
ISO/TR 21959-2:2020 Road vehicles — Human performance and state in the context of automated driving — Part 2: Considerations in designing experiments to investigate transition processes February 2020 Human Interaction
ISO/TR 23049:2018 Road Vehicles — Ergonomic aspects of external visual communication from automated vehicles to other road users September 2018 Human Interaction
ISO 15007:2020 Road vehicles — Measurement and analysis of driver visual behaviour with respect to transport information and control systems August 2020 Human Interaction
SAE J3134 Automated driving system marking lights May 2019 In-Vehicle Systems, Networks, Data and Interface Definition
J3197_202004 Automated Driving System Data Logger April 2020 In-Vehicle Systems, Networks, Data and Interface Definition
ISO 21111 -1-10 Road vehicles — In-vehicle Ethernet — Part 1  – 10 October 2020 In-Vehicle Systems, Networks, Data and Interface Definition
ISO/TR 20545:2017 Intelligent transport systems — Vehicle/roadway warning and control systems — Report on standardisation for vehicle automated driving systems (RoVAS)/Beyond driver assistance systems July 2017 Management/ Engineering Standards  
CEN/TS 17400:2020 Intelligent transportation systems – Urban ITS – Mixed vendor environments, methodologies & translators April 2020 Management/ Engineering Standards  
P2040 Standard for General Requirements for Fully Automated Vehicles Driving on Public Roads February 2020 Management/ Engineering Standards  
P2040.3  Recommended Practice for Permitting Automated Vehicles to Drive on Public Roads February 2020 Management/ Engineering Standards  
EN 16803-1 Space – Use of GNSS-based positioning for road Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) – Part 1: Definitions and system engineering procedures for the establishment and assessment of performances October 2016 Map and positioning
ETSI TS 103 246-1 Satellite Earth Stations and Systems (SES);
GNSS based location systems;
Part 1: Functional requirements 
October 2020 Map and positioning
ISO 14296:2016 Intelligent transport systems — Extension of map database specifications for applications of cooperative IST February 2016 Map and positioning
ISO 14825:2011 Intelligent transport systems — Geographic Data Files (GDF) — GDF5.0 July 2011 Map and positioning
ISO 17572-1-4 Intelligent transport systems (ITS) — Location referencing for geographic databases  2015-2018 Map and positioning
ISO 18750:2018 Intelligent transport systems — Co-operative ITS — Local dynamic map May 2018 Map and positioning
ISO/TS 21177:2019 Intelligent transport systems — ITS station security services for secure session establishment and authentication between trusted devices August 2019 Privacy & Security  
CEN ISO/TS 21177 Intelligent transport systems – ITS station security services for secure session establishment and authentication between trusted devices October 2019 Privacy & Security  
BSI PAS 1885  Fundamental principles of automotive cyber security December 2018 Privacy & Security  
BSI PAS 11281  Connected automotive ecosystems. Impact of security on safety. Code of practice. December 2018 Privacy & Security  
SAE J3061 Cybersecurity guidebook for Cyber-Physical vehicle Systems January 2016 Privacy & Security  
ETSI TR 103 460 Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS);
Security; Pre-standardization study on Misbehaviour Detection;
Release 2 
October 2020 Privacy & Security  
ETSI TS 103 097 V1.4.1 Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Security; Security header and certificate formats October 2020 Privacy & Security  
ISO/PAS 21448 Road vehicles – Safety of the intended functionality January 2019 Safety 
ISO 26262-11 Road vehicles – Functional safety – Part 11: Guidelines on application of ISO 26262 to semiconductors December 2018 Safety 
ISO 26262-10 Road vehicles – Functional safety – Part 10: Guidelines on ISO 26262 December 2018 Safety 
ISO 26262-9 Road vehicles – Functional safety – Part 9: Automotive safety integrity level (ASIL) – oriented and safety-oriented analyses December 2018 Safety 
ISO 26262-7 Road vehicles – Functional safety – Part 7: Production, operation, service and decommissioning December 2018 Safety 
ISO 26262-6 Road vehicles – Functional safety – Part 6: Product development at the software level December 2018 Safety 
ISO 26262-5 Road vehicles – Functional safety – Part 5: Product development at the hardware level December 2018 Safety 
ISO 26262-4 Road vehicles – Functional safety – Part 4: Product development of the system December 2018 Safety 
ISO 26262-3 Road vehicles – Functional safety – Part 3: Concept phase December 2018 Safety 
ISO 26262-2 Road vehicles – Functional safety – Part 2: Management of functional safety December 2018 Safety 
ISO 26262-1 Road vehicles – Functional safety – Part 1: Vocabulary December 2018 Safety 
PAS 1881:2020 Assuring safety for autonomous vehicle trials and testing February 2020 Safety 
ISO/TR 21718:2019 Intelligent transport systems — Spatio-temporal data dictionary for cooperative ITS and automated driving systems 2.0 January 2019 Terms & Definitions 
SAE_J3016 Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Driving Automation Systems for On-Road Motor Vehicles June 2018 Terms & Definitions 
SAE J2735D Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Message Set Dictionary (REVISED) March 2016 Terms & Definitions 
J3216_202005 Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Cooperative Driving Automation for On-Road Motor Vehicles  May 2020 Terms & Definitions 
P2040.1  Taxonomy and Definitions for Connected and Automated Vehicles February 2020 Terms & Definitions 
PAS 1883:2020 Operational design domain (ODD) taxonomy for an automated driving system (ADS). Specification August 2020 Terms & Definitions 
SAE J3018 Guidelines for safe on-road testing of SAE level 3,4 and 5 prototype automated driving systems October 2019 Testing, Verification & Validation
CEN ISO/TS 21189 Intelligent transport systems – Cooperative ITS – Test requirements and protocol implementation conformance statement (PICS)  May 2019 Testing, Verification & Validation
ISO 19206-1:2018 Road vehicles — Test devices for target vehicles, vulnerable road users and other objects, for assessment of active safety functions — Part 1: Requirements for passenger vehicle rear-end targets December 2018 Testing, Verification & Validation
ISO 19206-2:2018 Road vehicles — Test devices for target vehicles, vulnerable road users and other objects, for assessment of active safety functions — Part 2: Requirements for pedestrian targets December 2018 Testing, Verification & Validation
ISO 19206-4 ISO 19206-4
Road vehicles — Test devices for target vehicles, vulnerable road users and other objects, for assessment of active safety functions — Part 4: Requirements for bicyclist targets
November 2020 Testing, Verification & Validation

Standards (under development)

Standard Number Standard Title Domain
ISO/DIS 22737  Intelligent transport systems — Low-speed automated driving (LSAD) systems for predefined routes — Performance requirements, system requirements and performance test procedures AD/ADAS functions
ISO/AWI 23374 Intelligent transport systems – Automated valet parking systems (AVPS) – System framework, communication interface, and vehicle operation AD/ADAS functions
ISO/PRF 21202 ITS – Partially automated lane change systems (PALS) – Functional/operational requirements and test procedures AD/ADAS functions
ISO/AWI 23375 Intelligent transport systems — Collision evasive lateral manoeuvre systems (CELM) — Performance requirements and test procedures AD/ADAS functions
ISO/CD 23376 Intelligent transport systems — Vehicle-to-vehicle intersection collision warning systems (VVICW) — Performance requirements and test procedures AD/ADAS functions
ISO/AWI 4272 Intelligent transport systems — Truck platooning systems (TPS) — Function and operational requirements AD/ADAS functions
ISO/WD 23792-1 Intelligent transport systems — Motorway chauffeur systems (MCS) — Part 1: Framework and general requirements AD/ADAS functions
NEMA TS 10 Connected vehicle infrastructure-roadside equipment Connectivity
226260 Road Infrastructure – Automated Vehicle interactions reference framework Connectivity
226263 Road equipment – Interactions between automated vehicles and road infrastructure – Gap and overlap analysis for road equipment in digital geographic infrastructure standards for connected and automated vehicles Connectivity
J3161 C-V2X Deployment Profiles  Connectivity
ETSI TS 103 324  Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Cooperative Perception Services
CPS 
Connectivity
ISO/AWI TR 23254 Intelligent transport systems — Architecture — Use cases and high-level reference architecture for connected, automated vehicles Connectivity
ISO/PRF 21217 Intelligent transport systems — Station and communication architecture Connectivity
ISO/WD TS 5283 Road vehicles — Ergonomic aspects of driver monitoring and system interventions in the context of automated driving Human Interaction
ISO/AWI TR 23735 Road vehicles – Ergonomic design guidance for external visual communication from automated vehicles to other road users Human Interaction
ISO/AWI TR 23720 Road vehicles – Methods for evaluating other road user behaviour in the presence of automated vehicle external communication Human Interaction
ISO/DIS 23150 Road vehicles — Data communication between sensors and data fusion unit for automated driving functions — Logical interface In-Vehicle Systems, Networks, Data and Interface Definition
ISO/AWI TS 22726-2 Intelligent transport systems — Dynamic data and map database specification for connected and automated driving system applications — Part 2: Logical data model of dynamic data Map and positioning
ISO 20524-2 Intelligent transport systems — Geographic Data Files (GDF) GDF5.1 — Part 2: Map data used in automated driving systems, Cooperative ITS, and multi-modal transport Map and positioning
ISO/AWI TS 22726-1 Intelligent transport systems — Dynamic data and map database specification for connected and automated driving system applications — Part 1: Architecture and logical data model for harmonization of static map data Map and positioning
ISO/SAE DIS 21434 Road vehicles – Cybersecurity engineering Privacy & Security  
 SS_V2X_001 Security Specification through the Systems Engineering Process for SAE V2X Standards  Privacy & Security  
ISO/CD TR 4804 Road vehicles — Safety and cybersecurity for automated driving systems — Design, verification and validation methods Safety 
UL 4600 A safety standard governing self-driving cars Safety 
ISO/WD 34503 Road vehicles — Taxonomy for operational design domain for automated driving systems Terms & Definitions 
ISO/WD 34501 Road vehicles — Terms and definitions of test scenarios for automated driving systems Terms & Definitions 
ISO/SAE AWI PAS 22736 Intelligent transport systems – Taxonomy and definitions for terms related to driving automation systems for on-road motor vehicles Terms & Definitions 
AVSC00002202004 AVSC Best Practice for Describing an Operational Design Domain: Conceptual Framework and Lexicon  Terms & Definitions 
ISO/WD 24650 Road Vehicles — Sensors for automated driving under adverse weather conditions — Assessment of the cleaning system Testing, Verification & Validation
ISO/AWI 21734-1 Public transport — Performance testing for connectivity and safety functions of automated driving bus — Part 1: General framework Testing, Verification & Validation
ISO/AWI TS 22133
Road vehicles — Test object monitoring and control for active safety and automated/autonomous vehicle testing — Functional requirements, specifications and communication protocol
Testing, Verification & Validation
ISO/DIS 19206-3 Road vehicles — Test devices for target vehicles, vulnerable road users and other objects, for assessment of active safety functions — Part 3: Requirements for passenger vehicle 3D targets Testing, Verification & Validation
ISO/DIS 22735 Road vehicles — Test method to evaluate the performance of lane-keeping assistance systems Testing, Verification & Validation
ISO/DIS 22733-1 Test method to evaluate the performance of autonomous emergency braking systems — Part 1: Car-to-car Testing, Verification & Validation
ISO/AWI 22733-2 Test method to evaluate the performance of autonomous emergency braking systems — Part 2: Car to pedestrian Testing, Verification & Validation
ISO/DIS 11010-1  Passenger cars — Simulation model classification — Part 1: Vehicle dynamics Testing, Verification & Validation

European standards

Many EU countries (e.g. France, Spain, and Sweden) have taken action to review the regulatory issues related to CAD, including testing of vehicles. Some EU countries (e.g. UK) have regulations favourable to testing and others (e.g. Italy and Germany) use a case-by-case approach. This suggests that EU member states are at different levels in terms of development, testing and deployment of CAD. For improved research and vehicle operation testing, an EU-wide harmonised regulation for CAD is required to support a legislative act.

In absence of certification, operations approval through independent assessment of a design safety case and an operations safety case is an intermediate step allowing the industry to move forward with safe and reliable deployments. However, it becomes necessary to create the standards and approaches that will set the specific requirements to be fulfilled to achieve certification in order to ensure the correct behaviour of the system.

Current certification standards are still under strong discussion mainly for SAE Level 2 whereas Level 3 is slowly being deployed; there is no clear vision on how to proceed for Level 4 and 5. For these levels, it is necessary to develop the regulation and technology in parallel in a harmonized way.

Industry participants in the communications sector have been good at collectively agreeing to standards, enabling widespread use of specific new technologies impacting CAD as well. Vehicles must communicate with each other and with roadside infrastructure. Evaluating communication methods between vehicles and with the road infrastructure is a main topic which needs to be addressed by standardisation bodies. Besides investigating what additional software and hardware is required to support the chosen approach the industry and governments had difficulties to adopt a unified communication technology. Short-distance direct V2X communication is needed to communicate with other vehicles and nearby objects. Two V2X communication approaches are being pursued, DSRC for United States or ITS-G5 (WiFi 802.11p) for Europe and cellular C-V2X based on LTE (maybe later this will change to 5G). An overview of several releases concerning the communication standards are explained below:

Harmonized C-ITS Specifications, release 1.4 (C-Roads):

Based on the cooperation with the CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium, the harmonised CITS specifications focus on I2V (Infrastructure-to-Vehicle) communication, providing high level C-ITS Day-1 services that are profiled in line with the EC Phase 1 C-ITS Deployment Platform report:

  • RWW – Road Works Warning
  • IVS – In Vehicle Signage
  • OHLN – Other Hazardous Location Notifications
  • GLOSA – Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory.

The published specifications form the basis for the roll-out of infrastructure driven C-ITS services all across Europe and will be extended with each new release. First ITS-G5 implementations are already operational in several C-Roads Platform Member States and will be updated accordingly in the course of the C-Roads implementation initiative.

The harmonised communication profile for C-ITS services is publicly available and can be requested via https://www.c-roads.eu/platform/get-in-touch.html.

The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)

The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is an independent organization that produces standards for ICT-enabled systems, applications & services deployed across all sectors of industry and society. More detail can be found on the organization’s website: https://www.etsi.org/

In the discipline of Automotive Intelligent Transport, ETSI addresses the following topics related to communications in vehicles, between vehicles (e.g. car-to-car), and between vehicles and fixed locations (e.g. car-to-infrastructure):

  • Cooperative-ITS (C-ITS) and its evolution to support full autonomous driving including wireless short range communications (ITS-G5). C-ITS provides connectivity between road participants and infrastructure.
  • Automotive ITS Security: this includes trust and privacy management and certificate formats.
  • Automotive radar
  • Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC)
    DSRC provides communications between the vehicle and the roadside in specific locations (for example toll plazas). Applications such as Electronic Fee Collection (EFC) operates over DSRC.

The European Commission standardization request M/453 in the field of information and communication technologies to support the interoperability of Co-operative Systems for Intelligent Transport in the European Community as well as the standardization request M/546 on Intelligent Transport Systems in urban areas stresses this importance

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)

The 3GPP is a standard organization which develops protocols for mobile telephony. Its best known work is the development and maintenance of connectivity standards like 5G.

3GPP has defined a series of testing conditions to reproduce different environmental parameters that vehicles will encounter. These conditions focus on two key parameters:

  • Multipath propagations: Electromagnetic fields propagate in every dimension of the space, reflecting when they reach encounter reflective surfaces (buildings, ground). The radio receptor will receive not only the original radio signal source but a signal continuously modified by the surroundings
  • Signal Fading: Reflecting waves can be both constructive or destructives, thus modifying the original signal in different ways depending of the changing environment.

Electronic Communications Committee (CEPT-ECC)

The Electronic Communications Committee (CEPT-ECC) considers and develops policies on electronic communications activities in European context, taking account of European and international legislations and regulations.

Challenges and future standards

Standards are a necessity to achieve interoperability between communicating parties especially when products from different vendors shall be able to communicate with each other. To this end one of the major benefit arising is the ability for the customer to choose any vehicle brand with considering any potential technology incompatibilities.

In the rapidly evolving industry of automated, connected, electric and hybrid vehicles, the ability to create real-world test scenarios, troubleshoot potential failures and maximize the chance of passing standards within the allotted time helps bring products to market faster. Therefore, standards must be timely, market-driven and produced in an inclusive way that supports EU policies and Europe’s leadership in international standardisation.

Automotive technology also requires extension to smartphone technologies and wirelessly connected smart infrastructure. Automation functions such as sensing and processing already include high speed connectivity to enable autonomy. However, only small part of the autonomous domain is regulated and standardized. The collected information about existing standards aims in providing an overview of existing solutions and approaches. This way a simple gap analysis will reveal crucial aspects which are not addressed and the need for future standardisation activities

Currently, many standardisation activities are underway in different countries for (pre-) standards used in the development and testing of connected and automated systems. OEMs on one side produce their systems for a global market. However regional differences in products are needed and compliance to different user preferences and regulations.

There are a number of best practices that may be utilized in the process of developing a technical standard.

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