The ARCADE standardisation team aims in compiling a list of CAD related standards. The first logical step in this process is to bring global automated vehicle standards from different bodies involved worldwide into a fully harmonised group. This harmonisation effort will also assist in following and revising the status of the published or draft standards. The lists below will be updated on a quarterly basis and will include published and under development standards respectively.
|Standard No||Standard Title||Published Date||Link|
|CEN ISO/TS 19468||
Intelligent transport systems – Data interfaces between centers for transport information and control system
|October 2019||view details|
|CEN ISO/TS 21177||Intelligent transport systems – ITS station security services for secure session establishment and authentication between trusted devices||October 2019||view details|
|SAE J3018||Guidelines for safe on-road testing of SAE level 3,4 and 5 prototype automated driving systems||September 2019||view details|
|IEEE 1609.12||IEEE standard for wireless access in vehicular environments (WAVE) – Identifiers||September 2019||view details|
|CEN ISO/TS 19091||Intelligent transport systems – Cooperative ITS – Using V2I and I2V communications for application related to signalized intersections||July 2019||view details|
|IEEE 1609.2b||IEEE standard for wireless access to vehicular environment||June 2019||view details|
|CEN/TR 17297-1||Intelligent transport systems – Location referencing harmonization for urban ITS – Part 1: State of the art and guidelines||May 2019||view details|
|CEN ISO/TS 21189||Intelligent transport systems – Cooperative ITS – Test requirements and protocol implementation conformance statement (PICS)||May 2019||view details|
|SAE J3134||Automated driving system marking lights||May 2019||view details|
|ISO 20078-3||Road vehicles – Extended vehicle (ExVe) web services – Part 3: Security||May 2019||view details|
|CEN/TS 17312||Intelligent transport systems – eSafety – eCall via satellite||April 2019||view details|
|CEN/TS 17241||Intelligent transport systems – Traffic management systems – Status, fault and quality requirements||April 2019||view details|
|ISO 20080||Road vehicles – Information for remote diagnostic support||March 2019||view details|
|ISO 20078-2||Road vehicles – Extended vehicle (ExVe) web services – Part 2: Access||February 2019|
|ISO 20078-1||Road vehicles – Extended vehicle (ExVe) web services – Part 1: Content||February 2019|
|ISO 20035||ITS – Cooperative adaptive cruise control systems||January 2019|
|ISO/PAS 21448||Road vehicles – Safety of the intended functionality||January 2019|
|BSI PAS 1885||Fundamental principles of automotive cyber security||December 2018||view details|
|ISO 26262-11||Road vehicles – Functional safety – Part 11: Guidelines on application of ISO 26262 to semiconductors||December 2018||view details|
|ISO 26262-10||Road vehicles – Functional safety – Part 10: Guidelines on ISO 26262||December 2018||view details|
|ISO 26262-9||Road vehicles – Functional safety – Part 9: Automotive safety integrity level (ASIL) – oriented and safety-oriented analyses||December 2018||view details|
|ISO 26262-7||Road vehicles – Functional safety – Part 7: Production, operation, service and decommissioning||December 2018||view details|
|ISO 26262-6||Road vehicles – Functional safety – Part 6: Product development at the software level||December 2018||view details|
|ISO 26262-5||Road vehicles – Functional safety – Part 5: Product development at the hardware level||December 2018||view details|
|ISO 26262-4||Road vehicles – Functional safety – Part 4: Product development of the system||December 2018||view details|
|ISO 26262-3||Road vehicles – Functional safety – Part 3: Concept phase||December 2018||view details|
|ISO 26262-2||Road vehicles – Functional safety – Part 2: Management of functional safety||December 2018||view details|
|ISO 26262-1||Road vehicles – Functional safety – Part 1: Vocabulary||December 2018||view details|
|BSI PAS 11281||Connected automotive ecosystems. Impact of security on safety. Code of practice.||December 2018||view details|
|SAE J2945/2||DSRC performance requirements for V2V safety awareness||October 2018||view details|
|ETSI TS 138 522||5G; NR; User equipment conformance specification||October 2018||view details|
|ISO 19638||ITS – Road boundary departure prevention systems||September 2018||view details|
|ISO 21717||ITS – Partially automated in-lane driving system||September 2018||view details|
|SAE J3045||Truck & bus lane departure warning systems test procedure||August 2018||view details|
|ETSI TS 102 965||Intelligent transport systems; application object identifier||July 2018||view details|
|ETSI TS 101 539||Intersection collision risk warning||June 2018||view details|
|ETSI TR 121 914||
Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+) (GSM); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; 5G; Release description; Release 14
|SAE_J3016||Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Driving Automation Systems for On-Road Motor Vehicles||June 2018||view details|
|ETSI TS 124 386||LTE; User equipment to V2X control function||July 2017||view details|
|ISO 20077-1||Road vehicles – Extended vehicle methodology||December 2017||view details|
|SAE J2945||Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) Systems Engineering Process Guidance for SAE J2945/X Documents and Common Design Concepts||December 2017||view details|
|ISO 20077-1||Road vehicles – Extended vehicle (ExVe) methodology – Part 1: General information||December 2017||view details|
|ETSI TS 122 185||LTE; Service requirements for V2X services||March 2017||view details|
|ETSI EN 302 571 v2.1.1||Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Radio communications equipment operating in the 5 855 MHz to 5 925 MHz frequency band||February 2017||view details|
|EN 16803-1||Space – Use of GNSS-based positioning for road Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) – Part 1: Definitions and system engineering procedures for the establishment and assessment of performances||October 2016||view details|
|SAE J2735D||Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Message Set Dictionary (REVISED)||March 2016||view details|
|SAE J3061||Cybersecurity guidebook for Cyber-Physical vehicle Systems||
Standards (under development)
|Standard No||Standard Title||Status||Link|
|PAS 1881:2020||Assuring safety for autonomous vehicle trials and testing||Due for publication soon||view details|
|PAS 1880:2020||Guidelines for developing and assessing control systems for automated vehicles||Due for publication soon||view details|
|CEN/TS 17400:2020||Intelligent transportation systems – Urban ITS – Mixed vendor environments, methodologies & translators||
(Available: March 2020)
|UL 4600||A safety standard governing self-driving cars||
Voting ballot closes
Jan. 27, 2020
|NEMA TS 10||Connected vehicle infrastructure-roadside equipment||Under development||view details|
|ISO/CD 22737||Intelligent transport systems – Low speed automated driving (LSAD) systems for predefined routes – Performance requirements, system requirements and performance test procedures||Under development||view details|
|ISO/SAE AWI PAS 22736||Intelligent transport systems – Taxonomy and definitions for terms related to driving automation systems for on-road motor vehicles||Under development||view details|
|ISO/AWI TR 23735||Road vehicles – Ergonomic design guidance for external visual communication from automated vehicles to other road users||Under development||view details|
|ISO/AWI TR 23720||Road vehicles – Methods for evaluating other road user behaviour in the presence of automated vehicle external communication||Under development||view details|
|ISO/AWI 23374||Intelligent transport systems – Automated valet parking systems (AVPS) – System framework, communication interface, and vehicle operation||Under development||view details|
|ISO/PRF 21202||ITS – Partially automated lane change systems (PALS) – Functional/operational requirements and test procedures||Under development||view details|
|ISO/SAE DIS 21434||Road vehicles – Cybersecurity engineering||Under development||view details|
|ISO/DIS 13185-4||ITS-Vehicle interface for provisioning and support of ITS services (part 4)||Under development||view details|
|ISO/SAE CD 21434||Road vehicles – Cybersecurity engineering||Under development||view details|
Many EU countries (e.g. France, Spain, and Sweden) have taken action to review the regulatory issues related to CAD, including testing of vehicles. Some EU countries (e.g. UK) have regulations favourable to testing and others (e.g. Italy and Germany) use a case-by-case approach. This suggests that EU member states are at different levels in terms of development, testing and deployment of CAD. For improved research and vehicle operation testing, an EU-wide harmonised regulation for CAD is required to support a legislative act.
In absence of certification, operations approval through independent assessment of a design safety case and an operations safety case is an intermediate step allowing the industry to move forward with safe and reliable deployments. However, it becomes necessary to create the standards and approaches that will set the specific requirements to be fulfilled to achieve certification in order to ensure the correct behaviour of the system.
Current certification standards are still under strong discussion mainly for SAE Level 2 whereas Level 3 is slowly being deployed; there is no clear vision on how to proceed for Level 4 and 5. For these levels, it is necessary to develop the regulation and technology in parallel in a harmonized way.
Industry participants in the communications sector have been good at collectively agreeing to standards, enabling widespread use of specific new technologies impacting CAD as well. Vehicles must communicate with each other and with roadside infrastructure. Evaluating communication methods between vehicles and with the road infrastructure is a main topic which needs to be addressed by standardisation bodies. Besides investigating what additional software and hardware is required to support the chosen approach the industry and governments had difficulties to adopt a unified communication technology. Short-distance direct V2X communication is needed to communicate with other vehicles and nearby objects. Two V2X communication approaches are being pursued, DSRC for United States or ITS-G5 (WiFi 802.11p) for Europe and cellular C-V2X based on LTE (maybe later this will change to 5G). An overview of several releases concerning the communication standards are explained below:
Harmonized C-ITS Specifications, release 1.4 (C-Roads):
Based on the cooperation with the CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium, the harmonised CITS specifications focus on I2V (Infrastructure-to-Vehicle) communication, providing high level C-ITS Day-1 services that are profiled in line with the EC Phase 1 C-ITS Deployment Platform report:
- RWW – Road Works Warning
- IVS – In Vehicle Signage
- OHLN – Other Hazardous Location Notifications
- GLOSA – Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory.
The published specifications form the basis for the roll-out of infrastructure driven C-ITS services all across Europe and will be extended with each new release. First ITS-G5 implementations are already operational in several C-Roads Platform Member States and will be updated accordingly in the course of the C-Roads implementation initiative.
The harmonised communication profile for C-ITS services is publicly available and can be requested via https://www.c-roads.eu/platform/get-in-touch.html.
The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)
The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is an independent organization that produces standards for ICT-enabled systems, applications & services deployed across all sectors of industry and society. More detail can be found on the organization’s website: https://www.etsi.org/
In the discipline of Automotive Intelligent Transport, ETSI addresses the following topics related to communications in vehicles, between vehicles (e.g. car-to-car), and between vehicles and fixed locations (e.g. car-to-infrastructure):
- Cooperative-ITS (C-ITS) and its evolution to support full autonomous driving including wireless short range communications (ITS-G5). C-ITS provides connectivity between road participants and infrastructure.
- Automotive ITS Security: this includes trust and privacy management and certificate formats.
- Automotive radar
- Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC)
DSRC provides communications between the vehicle and the roadside in specific locations (for example toll plazas). Applications such as Electronic Fee Collection (EFC) operates over DSRC.
The European Commission standardization request M/453 in the field of information and communication technologies to support the interoperability of Co-operative Systems for Intelligent Transport in the European Community as well as the standardization request M/546 on Intelligent Transport Systems in urban areas stresses this importance
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)
The 3GPP is a standard organization which develops protocols for mobile telephony. Its best known work is the development and maintenance of connectivity standards like 5G.
3GPP has defined a series of testing conditions to reproduce different environmental parameters that vehicles will encounter. These conditions focus on two key parameters:
- Multipath propagations: Electromagnetic fields propagate in every dimension of the space, reflecting when they reach encounter reflective surfaces (buildings, ground). The radio receptor will receive not only the original radio signal source but a signal continuously modified by the surroundings
- Signal Fading: Reflecting waves can be both constructive or destructives, thus modifying the original signal in different ways depending of the changing environment.
Electronic Communications Committee (CEPT-ECC)
The Electronic Communications Committee (CEPT-ECC) considers and develops policies on electronic communications activities in European context, taking account of European and international legislations and regulations.
Challenges and future standards
Standards are a necessity to achieve interoperability between communicating parties especially when products from different vendors shall be able to communicate with each other. To this end one of the major benefit arising is the ability for the customer to choose any vehicle brand with considering any potential technology incompatibilities.
In the rapidly evolving industry of automated, connected, electric and hybrid vehicles, the ability to create real-world test scenarios, troubleshoot potential failures and maximize the chance of passing standards within the allotted time helps bring products to market faster. Therefore, standards must be timely, market-driven and produced in an inclusive way that supports EU policies and Europe’s leadership in international standardisation.
Automotive technology also requires extension to smartphone technologies and wirelessly connected smart infrastructure. Automation functions such as sensing and processing already include high speed connectivity to enable autonomy. However, only small part of the autonomous domain is regulated and standardized. The collected information about existing standards aims in providing an overview of existing solutions and approaches. This way a simple gap analysis will reveal crucial aspects which are not addressed and the need for future standardisation activities
Currently, many standardisation activities are underway in different countries for (pre-) standards used in the development and testing of connected and automated systems. OEMs on one side produce their systems for a global market. However regional differences in products are needed and compliance to different user preferences and regulations.
There are a number of best practices that may be utilized in the process of developing a technical standard.
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