Modern infrastructure will increasingly incorporate new components which increase the robustness of the system. The future of CAD is bright and offers the long-term promise of mobility that improves safety and transport operations while lowering the environmental impact. Therefore, at this point, we have to see a more standardised and active automated ecosystem. Providing a common interface to improve the economy of scale to reduce cost, which improves the integration of advanced functions in CAD. At global and European level, different standards developing organizations exist with the intend to inform wider industry thinking and accelerate the successful introduction of exciting pioneering technology.
|ANSI||American National Standards Institute||https://www.ansi.org/|
|ASAM||Association for standardisation of automation and measuring systems||https://www.asam.net|
|CEN||European committee for standardisation||https://www.cen.eu|
|CENELEC||European committee for Electrotechnical standardisation||https://www.cenelec.eu|
|CEPT-ECC||Electronic communications committe||https://www.cept.org|
|DIN||Deutsche Institut für Normung e.V||https://www.din.de/|
|ETSI ITS||European telecommunications standards institute||https://www.etsi.org|
|IEC||International Electrotechnical Commission||https://www.iec.ch|
|IEEE||Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers||https://www.ieee.org|
|ISO||International Organization for Standardisation||https://www.iso.org|
|IETF||Internet Engineering Task Force||https://www.ietf.org/|
|ITU||International Telecommunications Union||https://www.itu.int|
|NEMA||National electrical manufacturers association||https://nema.org|
|NISO||National Information Standards Organisation||https://www.niso.org|
|SAE||Society of Automotive Engineers||https://www.sae.org|
|3GPP||The 3rd Generation Partnership Project||https://www.3gpp.org|
Many EU countries (e.g. France, Spain, and Sweden) have taken action to review the regulatory issues related to CAD, including testing of vehicles. Some EU countries (e.g. UK) have regulations favourable to testing and others (e.g. Italy and Germany) use a case-by-case approach. This suggests that EU member states are at different levels in terms of development, testing and deployment of CAD. For improved research and vehicle operation testing, an EU-wide harmonised regulation for CAD is required to support a legislative act.
In absence of certification, operations approval through independent assessment of a design safety case and an operations safety case is an intermediate step allowing the industry to move forward with safe and reliable deployments. However, it becomes necessary to create the standards and approaches that will set the specific requirements to be fulfilled to achieve certification in order to ensure the correct behaviour of the system.
Current certification standards are still under strong discussion mainly for SAE Level 2 whereas Level 3 is slowly being deployed; there is no clear vision on how to proceed for Level 4 and 5. For these levels, it is necessary to develop the regulation and technology in parallel in a harmonized way.
Industry participants in the communications sector have been good at collectively agreeing to standards, enabling widespread use of specific new technologies impacting CAD as well. Vehicles must communicate with each other and with roadside infrastructure. Evaluating communication methods between vehicles and with the road infrastructure is a main topic which needs to be addressed by standardisation bodies. Besides investigating what additional software and hardware is required to support the chosen approach the industry and governments had difficulties to adopt a unified communication technology. Short-distance direct V2X communication is needed to communicate with other vehicles and nearby objects. Two V2X communication approaches are being pursued, DSRC for United States or ITS-G5 (WiFi 802.11p) for Europe and cellular C-V2X based on LTE (maybe later this will change to 5G). An overview of several releases concerning the communication standards are explained below:
Harmonized C-ITS Specifications, release 1.4 (C-Roads):
Based on the cooperation with the CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium, the harmonised CITS specifications focus on I2V (Infrastructure-to-Vehicle) communication, providing high level C-ITS Day-1 services that are profiled in line with the EC Phase 1 C-ITS Deployment Platform report:
- RWW – Road Works Warning
- IVS – In Vehicle Signage
- OHLN – Other Hazardous Location Notifications
- GLOSA – Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory.
The published specifications form the basis for the roll-out of infrastructure driven C-ITS services all across Europe and will be extended with each new release. First ITS-G5 implementations are already operational in several C-Roads Platform Member States and will be updated accordingly in the course of the C-Roads implementation initiative.
The harmonised communication profile for C-ITS services is publicly available and can be requested via https://www.c-roads.eu/platform/get-in-touch.html.
The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)
The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is an independent organization that produces standards for ICT-enabled systems, applications & services deployed across all sectors of industry and society. More detail can be found on the organization’s website: https://www.etsi.org/
In the discipline of Automotive Intelligent Transport, ETSI addresses the following topics related to communications in vehicles, between vehicles (e.g. car-to-car), and between vehicles and fixed locations (e.g. car-to-infrastructure):
- Cooperative-ITS (C-ITS) and its evolution to support full autonomous driving including wireless short range communications (ITS-G5). C-ITS provides connectivity between road participants and infrastructure.
- Automotive ITS Security: this includes trust and privacy management and certificate formats.
- Automotive radar
- Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC)
DSRC provides communications between the vehicle and the roadside in specific locations (for example toll plazas). Applications such as Electronic Fee Collection (EFC) operates over DSRC.
The European Commission standardization request M/453 in the field of information and communication technologies to support the interoperability of Co-operative Systems for Intelligent Transport in the European Community as well as the standardization request M/546 on Intelligent Transport Systems in urban areas stresses this importance
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)
The 3GPP is a standard organization which develops protocols for mobile telephony. Its best known work is the development and maintenance of connectivity standards like 5G.
3GPP has defined a series of testing conditions to reproduce different environmental parameters that vehicles will encounter. These conditions focus on two key parameters:
- Multipath propagations: Electromagnetic fields propagate in every dimension of the space, reflecting when they reach encounter reflective surfaces (buildings, ground). The radio receptor will receive not only the original radio signal source but a signal continuously modified by the surroundings
- Signal Fading: Reflecting waves can be both constructive or destructives, thus modifying the original signal in different ways depending of the changing environment.
Electronic Communications Committee (CEPT-ECC)
The Electronic Communications Committee (CEPT-ECC) considers and develops policies on electronic communications activities in European context, taking account of European and international legislations and regulations.
Challenges and future standards
Standards are a necessity to achieve interoperability between communicating parties especially when products from different vendors shall be able to communicate with each other. To this end one of the major benefit arising is the ability for the customer to choose any vehicle brand with considering any potential technology incompatibilities.
In the rapidly evolving industry of automated, connected, electric and hybrid vehicles, the ability to create real-world test scenarios, troubleshoot potential failures and maximize the chance of passing standards within the allotted time helps bring products to market faster. Therefore, standards must be timely, market-driven and produced in an inclusive way that supports EU policies and Europe’s leadership in international standardisation.
Automotive technology also requires extension to smartphone technologies and wirelessly connected smart infrastructure. Automation functions such as sensing and processing already include high speed connectivity to enable autonomy. However, only small part of the autonomous domain is regulated and standardized. The collected information about existing standards aims in providing an overview of existing solutions and approaches. This way a simple gap analysis will reveal crucial aspects which are not addressed and the need for future standardisation activities
Currently, many standardisation activities are underway in different countries for (pre-) standards used in the development and testing of connected and automated systems. OEMs on one side produce their systems for a global market. However regional differences in products are needed and compliance to different user preferences and regulations.
There are a number of best practices that may be utilized in the process of developing a technical standard.
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